Industrial Hoses

Industrial Hoses – Key point

Flexible hose assemblies may perform different functions on installations: connecting movable transport tanks, allowing certain type of movements of the machine or device while continuously supply/discharge fluid or separate from vibration or stresses coming from the working machines or many other specific functions. The common feature is one: they are all potentially “weak chain” of installation, especially exposed to risk coming from the inside “difficult fluid” being conveyed (extreme pressure or/and temperature, chemical attack) or from the external factors (mechanical destruction: over bending, cutting, abrasion, extreme external temperatures or exposure to chemical attack etc.) In some applications, the most demanding for the hose, can be the cleaning process – for example sterilization and cleaning in food and pharmaceutical industry. To meet requirements of different applications we offer several hundred types of hoses, while more than 100 types in many popular sizes are continuously available from our warehouse.

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How to choose the suitable hose?

Usually, we are looking for the hose suitable for certain application, what means the resistance against conveyed fluid and some generic features. Then, we check the pressure/vacuum ranges and temperatures. Having roughly selected the hose type, we are looking for the hose diameter and checking if the minimum bending radius in chosen diameter is sufficient.
We need to remember, that the hose has to be assembled – on the existing end fittings, or provided with couplings. In the case if we are going to use the existing fittings we need to check if our hose is suitable for them – e.g. having the right wall thickness. In some applications, even popular as cooling of heating line, the other factors can be important – cyclic movement or high periodical fluctuation of pressure. In the other ones, the hose has to be strong enough to resist high axial or over bending forces without destruction.
When the hose line is long, the pressure drop factor may become important – it is dependent not only on the diameter, but also on the hose type. In such complex cases we advice contact our specialists – they will help you to find an optimal solution.

CAUTION!

Please do not underestimate the critical parameters as pressure and temperature. If in the process there exists several parameters, always choose the extreme ones. Highest possible pressure and vacuum. Highest and lowest temperature. If the applied pressure, temperature, kind of fluid can be dangerous for life or health of people we strongly recommend contacting our sales specialists to assure about the selection.
Please remember, that you are responsible for correctness and accuracy of the given data.

Find Your hose using the Hose Review section. It will help a bit, hopefully…

Minimum Bending Radius

Minimum Bending Radius is defined to the centerline (axis) of the hose. This is the construction limit, calculated by the manufacturer. Its transgression is not allowed and leads to damaging the hose.promienzagieciaEN


 

Rubber Hoses

Industrial hoses made using rubber are actually available in many different designs created to meet the specific demands and reach expected parameters. The differences, visible at a glance, are coming from the different manufacturing processes and methods of reinforcement (visible on the cut ends). The hoses designed for the “clean” industries as food industry, are easy to distinguish: the internal rubber layers are usually white and the external ones are in light, bright colors. Eventually they can be clearly translucent – as silicone. The other differences are less evident or even invisible – as the specific type of compound used or how the interlayer and the reinforcement is made.


Delivery hoses, extruded

Small diameter, long length hoses (DN 6 to DN25). Manufactured on automated lines, available in long pieces (80-100m). Characteristic smooth cover. Reinforced with braid, for pressure service. Typical maximum working pressures 10-20 bar.

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Delivery hoses, made on mandreli

Most popular manufacturing method for many industrial and hydraulic hoses. Characteristic spirally wounded textile imprint on the outer cover. Typical diameters from DN6 to DN100. Pressure range of industrial hoses 10-20 bar, hydraulic up to 400 bar (steel braids or spirals).

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Suction-delivery hoses

Most popular suction-delivery hoses are made in sizes from DN19 to DN100. Characteristic is one or more spiral reinforcing the hose against vacuum, mostly made from metal wire. Hoses are made on rigid mandrels. Typical working pressures from 6 to 25 bar.

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Suction-delivery hoses with thermoplastic liner

Manufactured as classic rubber delivery or suction-delivery hoses, but inside there is a thin layer thermoplastic liner which provides better chemical resistance and purity.

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Rubber Hose Options

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Corrugated cover

Increase hose flexibility, especially n bigger diameters (typically DN75 and higher)
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Textile cover – heat resistant
Heat resistant textile, permanently bonded with the hose structure, usually glass-fiber. Popular solution for cooling hoses for metallurgy.
For the induction furnaces the hoses have to be isolative (> 5 kV).
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Flame retardant, fireproof rubber
Special rubber compounds of high flame and temperature resistance, shields the internal layers against burnout.
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Antistatic rubbers and liners
For some applications, e.g. for flammable fluids and for use in explosive zones it is essential to provide sufficient antistatic properties. Nowadays, more and more popular are Ω/T class hoses having antistatic liner and cover along the hose, and also providing dissipation of electrostatic charges through-the wall (from inside to the outside). This type gradually replaces old style with metal wires, in-built in the hose reinforcement layer (class M).
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Drive-through, crash resistant

Some types of suction hoses are crush resistant: i.e. after driving through, they recover their shape
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Fluorescent marking

Applied on fuel hoses for aircraft refueling, improves hose visibility in darkness.

Internal layers (rubbers and plastic liners)

Inner layer is in direct contact with conveyed medium, so properties of its material have the major impact on the suitability for the application. Below we list characteristics of the popular materials.

Common Name ASTM Name Description Properties
Natural rubber NR Natural rubber Excellent physical properties, resistance to abrasion and low temperatures. Not resistant to oils and limited resistance to acids.
Nitril rubber (Buna N®) NBR Acrylonitril Butadiene rubber Excellent resistance to hydrocarbons and aliphatics (gas, oil, petroleum), vegetable and animal fats. Good physical properties.
Limited resistance to aromatics.
NBR/PCV blend NBR/PVC Mixture of NBR rubber with PVC Excellent resistance to mineral oils and ageing. Not resistant to low temperatures – stiffness.
Ethylene-Propylene rubber EPDM Ethylene-Propylene Diene rubber Excellent resistance to hot water and steam, ozone and ageing, chemical substances (detergents, alcohols, ketones, alkalis, inorganic and organic acids, high and low temperatures.
Low resistance to hydrocarbons.
Styrene-butadiene rubber SBR Styrene-butadiene rubber Good physical properties, resistance to abrasion. Low resistance to hydrocarbons.
Chloroprene (Neopren®) CR Chloroprene Good resistance to ageing, flame retardant, good physical properties. Resistant to refrigerants, ammonia, carbon dioxide, silicone oils, alkalis, alcohols, chlorine, ozone, vegetable oils. Low resistance to hydrocarbons.
Butyl rubber IIR Butyl Excellent resistance to weathering, low permeability to gases, good physical properties and resistance to high and low temperatures. Good resistance to alkalis and acids – similar to EPDM. Not resistant to hydrocarbons.
Chlorobutyl rubber CIIR Chlorobutyl Excellent resistance to ageing, low permeability to gases, good physical properties and resistance to low and high temperatures. Good resistance to AIDS and alkalis, better than butyl rubber. Not resistant to hydrocarbons.
Fluorinated rubber (Viton®) FKM Group of elastomers based on vinylidene fluoride Excellent chemical resistance, especially for fuels, oils, other hydrocarbons and high temperatures. Actually there are 5 variants of different compositions and of different features.
Silicone rubber VMQ Silicone rubber Excellent resistance to high and low temperatures, high elasticity, good electrical insulating properties. Popular clean versions, physiologically safe – transparent and technical – solid colored i.e. for compressed hot air.
LINING:
PTFE Teflon® PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene Excellent, universal chemical resistance. Physiologically safe. Resistance to very high and low temperatures, low friction.
FEP FEP Fluorinated Ethylene Prolpylene Excellent Universal chemical resistance – similar to PTFE. Physiologically safe. Resistance to very high and low temperatures, low friction.
UPE UMHWPE Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene Excellent resistance to solvents, acids, chemicals and hydrocarbons including aromatics, very good abrasion resistance. Non toxic, without taste and smell.

ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials
Neoprene®, Viton®, Teflon® are registered trademark of DuPont.

It is necessary to underline, that finally, the inner liner does not decide exclusively about the whole hose compatibility with the chemical medium with of the defined temperature and concentration, as well as suitability for the application, but also the other construction elements – as reinforcement and cover have to be considered.

Composite Hoses

The composite hoses consist of many layers of foil and textile wrapped around and kept between two spiral metal wires – internal and external. These hoses are not suitable for self-assembly, so they are supplied as a readymade assemblies only. Their great advantage is very good flexibility – also in big diameters and in low working temperatures, so they are willingly used on road tankers. Carefully chosen material combinations allow to manufacture hoses for extremely low temperatures (cryogenics – liquefied gases), provided with the special thermoinsulation, for very hot, liquid bitumines or flame resistant ones.

Very important feature of composite hoses is possibility to manufacture big diameters (up to DN 300 mm) and long pieces (up to 25m). Thanks to that, they are a good solution for mass transport, e.g. ship-to-shore.

Composite hoses are manufactured according to European Standards EN 13766:2010 and EN13765: 2010, the other national standards in several classes and types. Selected hoses have additional DNV type approvals. Typical maximum working pressures are from 4 to 25 bar.

Composite hose cross section

Internal Materials

In case of composite hoses the direct contact with the medium have both inner liner and the inner spiral, so when selecting the hose type for the application is necessary to check material suitability of both elements.

Common name Name Description Properties
LINING:
PP PP Polypropylene Good chemical resistance and low price. Limited suitability for low temperatures.
PTFE Teflon® PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene Excellent chemical resistance. Physiologically safe. Resistant to high and low temperatures, low friction.
METAL SPIRALES:
AL AL Aluminium Good resistance to fuel applications, low weight. Low mechanical strength, higher price.
St St Steel zinc plated Good resistance to fuel applications and good mechanical strength, low price. Limited resistance to corrosion.
SS SS Stainless steel Good resistance to chemicals. Possibility to use in very low temperatures.
Ti Ti Titan Excellent corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength – comparable to steel, low weigth. The main disadvantage is high price.
PP /St PP /St Polypropylene coated steel wire Good chemical resistance and low price. Sensitive to low temperatures.
PVDF /SS PVDF /SS Very good chemical resistance – used for aggressive chemicals.


Metal Hoses

Metal hoses are made from the convoluted thin metal sheet, mainly stainless steel and reinforced with the external stainless steel braid. These types of hoses are relatively light, flexible and resistant to many chemicals and foodstuffs. They are also fully gas tight, non-flammable and have natural antistatic properties. They can be applied in the widest range of working temperatures: from cryogenic (liquid gases) up to plus several hundred degree Celsius. Unquestionable benefit of this hoses is the possibility of easy material recycling. The evident disadvantage of this kind of hose in compare to most typical rubber and plastic types is the deep corrugated profile of the inner layer, which creates turbulences of the passing fluid and which may be difficult to clean from the eventually deposits of solids.
Metal hoses are available in wide range of diameters from DN 6 to DN 250 in many variants and options and can be met in totally different branches of industry.
Due to necessity to weld fittings, these types of hoses are supplied only as a readymade assemblies.


METAL HOSE TYPES

 

metalowy1 profil1t Standard corrugated profile – universal solution for most applications. Pressure rating depends strongly on diameter and number of braids used. For DN 6 the maximum working pressure reaches 363 bar for static applications while for DN 250 it is maximum 13 bar.
metalowy2 profil2t Narrow corrugated profile – is more flexible. The pressure ratings and available diameters are the same as for standard profile.
metalowy3 profil3t High pressure, thick wall – reaches higher maximum working pressures, especially in smaller diameters. For example for DN 6 mm – 460 bar.
metalowy4 profil4t Interlock hoses – made from helically wrapped, shaped, metal stripe are used mostly as a mechanical protection and reinforcement near end fittings.

Tube material:

For metal hoses most popular are stainless steels 1.4541 and 1.4404.
For the special applications Hastelloy, Monel are used.

PTFE Hoses

It is important to distinguish all-teflon hoses and the rubber hoses lined with PTFE. In the classic, all-teflon hose types, the inner layer is made solely from thick PTFE plastic, in form of smooth or convoluted tube, externally reinforced with the steel or plastic braid. In case of rubber hoses PTFE lined, the liner is thin – the hose body is traditionally made rubber hose. PTFE plastic is supplied in two versions: natural – usually translucent, which has good insulating properties and black – antistatic, of electrical resistance less than 106Ω.

Because PTFE is a material of excellent chemical resistance, very wide range of working temperatures, physiologically safe and resistant to ageing, the teflon hoses have virtually wide range of potential applications: from pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industry through chemical industry up to aerospace industry. Unfortunately, it is quite expensive and difficult to process, so the teflon hoses are not cheap.

The classic teflon hoses, having a thick PTFE plastic layer have additionally a great advantage which makes them irreplaceable in some applications: possibility of integral lining of fittings. The internal layer of PTFE from the hose can be assembled through the inside bore of the fitting and thermally formed on the outside sealing face of the coupling. Thanks to that, fluid passing through the fitting has no contact with the metal of coupling. In such execution, there is also no gap between the plastic liner and the metal fitting hose tail, which can trap fluid residues as in the standard swage.

Thinking about using PTFE hoses it should be noted that:

  • High temperature strongly weakens PTFE tube. For the temperatures above 130° C, the given maximum working pressure has to be reduced by 1% for each 1° C above.
  • Standard, extruded PTFE is quite permeable for gases. For gas applications the other, special versions of hoses should be used.
  • PTFE is rather delicate kind of plastic, easy to damage mechanically, e.g. during cleaning and assembling. Necessary care should be taken.

Assembling fittings requires swaging press, while assembling integrally lined fittings – requires additional tools and thermal processes, so these hoses are not designed for self assembly. We supply them only as a readymade assemblies with couplings.

Integrally Lined Couplings

Teflon hoses with the thick PTFE plastic layer have additionally a great advantage which makes them irreplaceable in some applications: integral lining of fittings. The internal layer of PTFE from the hose is assembled through the inside bore of the fitting and then thermally formed on the outside sealing face of the coupling. Thanks to that, fluid passing through the fitting has no contact with the metal of coupling. In such execution, there is also no gap between the plastic liner and the metal fitting hose tail, which can trap fluid residues as in the standard swage. Cleaning is easy and complete.

Teflon Hose Types

teflon01
Fluoroplastic tubings without reinforcement are used in small diameters form DN 2 do DN10, mainly. Apart from PTFE the other fluoropolymers of similar properties are used: FEP and PFA. They can be supplied also in antistatic (black) versions.
Typical wall thickness: 1 mm
teflon02
Universal smooth bore hoses reinforced with metal braid can be additionally covered with rubber, e.g. silicone for smoothness and cleanability.
Typical diameters from DN 6 to DN 25.
Typical PTFE wall thickness: about 1 mm
teflon03
Universal spirally convoluted hoses reinforced with stainless steel braid are much more flexible than smooth bore hoses. Due to construction they have lower working pressures. Can be additionally covered with rubber, e.g. silicone for smoothness and cleanability, as a smooth bore hoses.
Typical diameters from DN 10 to DN 25.
Typical PTFE wall thickness: about 1 mm
teflon04
Thick wall, convoluted hoses, designed for conveying fluids in technological processes, very flexible in bigger diameters. More thick wall assure enough mechanical strength. For more resistance to over bending and vacuum, the additional reinforcing stainless steel wire is applied over convolutions, under the braid.
Available diameters from DN 13 to DN 150.
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Thick wall, convoluted hoses with open profile (120° angle), improved flow characteristics and reduced potential residues. For more strength reinforced with spiral wire.
Available diameters from DN 12 to DN 100.
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Internally smooth hose for applications which requires complete, precise cleanability of the hose assembly.
Available diameters from DN 12 to DN 50.
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Rubber hoses PTFE or FEP lined are excellent solution for many production processes and loading operations. This type of hose can be self assembled with couplings made according to EN 14420 standard.
Available diameters from DN 13 to DN 100.
teflon08
Rubber hoses with convoluted PTFE layer are more flexible than PTFE lined hoses. For this type of hose specially designed fittings are supplied – with reusable shell clamps.
Available diameters from DN 20 to DN 50.
teflon09
ELAPAHRM rubber hoses with ultra smooth Teflon® liner. Couplings can be integrally lined/beaded or specially crimped with gap minimized. Readymade assemblies only.
Available diameters from DN 13 to DN 50.


Plastic Hoses

Plastic hoses are nowadays as popular as rubber ones and irreplaceable in numerous industrial applications. Wide range of available thermoplastic materials and possibility to combine the in the production process resulted in design and manufacturing many types of hoses. Some constructions are similar to rubber hose structures (inner layer – delivery or suction-delivery reinforcement – outer layer), but there exists many other designs, especially for low pressure applications.

Types of plastic hoses

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Tubings
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Synthetic braid reinforced, delivery hoses, mainly from PVC, rarely from PU or TPU.
Typical diameters: form DN 6 to DN 50 mm
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Metal wire reinforced, suction hoses, mainly from PVC, rarely from PU or TPU
Typical diameters: form DN 6 to DN 100 mm
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Suction-delivery hoses reinforced with synthetic braid and steel wire, from PVC, PU or TPU
Typical diameters: from DN 6 to DN 100 mm
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Suction hoses reinforced with rigid PVC spiral and made from soft, clear PVC or PU. There are also PVC hoses with thin PU internal lining – for better abrasion resistance.

Available diameters: from DN 13 to DN 300 mm
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There is a large group of suction hoses made from soft PVC and reinforced with rigid PVC spiral. The spiral deeply or entirely embedded in the thick hose wall made from the soft, elastic plastic.
Available diameters: from DN 25 to DN 200 mm.
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PVC hoses reinforced with PVC rigid spiral, additionally lined with PU of a very high abrasion resistance.
Available diameters: from DN 76 to DN 152 mm
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PU or PVC foil hoses reinforced with metal wire. Often used for vacuum extraction of saw dust, wood chips pellets. There are many options of different pressure/vacuum resistance, flexibility, abrasion resistance and special material features. Available diameters: from DN 38 to DN 406 mm
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Lightweight PVC hoses reinforced with rigid PVC spiral used for venting fumes or for blowing fresh air. Also as protection conduit for cables.
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Deeply convoluted hoses made from homogenous thermoplastic. Often used for central vacuum cleaning systems and industrial vacuum cleaners.
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Hoses made from fabrics coated with PVC or PU, reinforced with steel spiral wire. Lightweight and flexible, axially compressible, used for venting or blowing. Their working parameters are strongly dependant on the kind of fabric used.
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Layflat hoses – made from PVC or PU reinforced with synthetic braid.
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Hoses made from fabrics coated with plastics clamped with spiral metal profile – clipped. There are many versions of these hoses, especially designed for the applications like venting very aggressive chemicals or extreme temperatures.
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Hoses made from fabrics, reinforced with steel wire spiral, sewn. Often used for a bit higher pressures than clipped hoses. Popular high temperature hoses coated with silicone or neoprene.


Materials

PVC PCW Polyvinyl chloride Very cheap, good chemical resistance, available in food quality versions. Limited temperature resistance, stiff at low temperatures. Often, phthalates are used as a plasticizer to achieve softness.
BioVinyl™ Bio-PVC Biological Polyvinyl chloride
A bit more expansive than traditional PVC, but eliminating use of phthalates – instead, the bio-based plasticizer is used. Environmental friendly – reduced CO2 emission.
PU (ogólnie) PU lub TPU Polyurethane – or Thermoplastic Polyurethane, commonly Good mechanical properties, very good abrasion resistance, resistant to ozone and ageing. Elasticity in wide range of temperatures. Moderate temperature resistance.
PU poliester based PU lub TPU Polyester polyurethane Excellent resistance to abrasion and mechanical properties, good chemical resistance, e.g. to mineral oil.

Low resistance to hydrolysis and microbiological.
PU polyether based PU lub TPU Polyether polyurethane Excellent resistance to hydrolysis and cold flexibility, good mechanical properties and resistance to microbiologic biodegradation. Less chemical resistant. Food quality options.
Thermoplastic rubbers TPE Thermoplastic Elastomer Group of copolymers or polymer blends under which currently stands six categories of materials: TPE-S (styrene block copolymers – e.g. a popular Santoprene), TPE-O (blends of polyolefin, elastomer alloys), TPE-V (thermoplastic vulcanizates), TPE-U (thermoplastic polyurethane) – described more precisely above, TPE-E (thermoplastic copolyester) and TPE-A (thermoplastic copolyamide).
Detailed properties of each material are quite different. Hose manufacturers usually do not provide specific information’s about the compound used, only a generic group name of plastic.
TPE-S (TPS) Styrene copolymers Neutral in taste and smell, good resistance to acid and alkali solutions, alcohols, resistant to ozone, ageing and UV. Flexible in wide range of temperatures.
TPE-hyg Hygienic thermoplastic rubber Hygienically clean thermoplastic rubber of neutral taste and smell, resistant to acids and alkali, concentrated alcohols as well oils and fats. Resistant to ozone and ageing.

Very flexible in wide range of temperatures.
TPE-V (TPV) Vulcanizate of polypropylene and EPDM rubber Good chemical resistance and resistance to ageing and ozone. Flexible in wide range of temperatures.
EVA EVA
(PEVA)
Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer Soft and flexible plastic, resistant to cracking and low temperatures.